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In the United States, American Football is called "football". American football evolved from the sports of association football soccer and rugby football.
Rugby football, like American football, is a sport where two competing teams vie for control of a ball, which can be kicked through a set of goalposts or run into the opponent's goal area to score points.
What is considered to be the first American football game was played on November 6, , between Rutgers and Princeton , two college teams. The game was played between two teams of 25 players each and used a round ball that could not be picked up or carried.
It could, however, be kicked or batted with the feet, hands, head or sides, with the ultimate goal being to advance it into the opponent's goal.
Rutgers won the game 6 goals to 4. Representatives of Yale, Columbia , Princeton and Rutgers met on October 19, to create a standard set of rules for all schools to adhere to.
Harvard abstained from the conference, as they favored a rugby-style game that allowed running with the ball. An Harvard-Yale game played under rugby-style rules was observed by two impressed Princeton athletes.
These players introduced the sport to Princeton, a feat the Professional Football Researchers Association compared to "selling refrigerators to Eskimos.
Yale player Walter Camp , now regarded as the "Father of American Football",   secured rule changes in that reduced the size of each team from 15 to 11 players and instituted the snap to replace the chaotic and inconsistent scrum.
The introduction of the snap resulted in unexpected consequences. Prior to the snap, the strategy had been to punt if a scrum resulted in bad field position.
However, a group of Princeton players realized that, as the snap was uncontested, they now could hold the ball indefinitely to prevent their opponent from scoring.
In , both teams in a game between Yale-Princeton used this strategy to maintain their undefeated records. Each team held the ball, gaining no ground, for an entire half, resulting in a 0—0 tie.
This "block game" proved extremely unpopular with the spectators and fans of both teams. A rule change was necessary to prevent this strategy from taking hold, and a reversion to the scrum was considered.
However, Camp successfully proposed a rule in that limited each team to three downs , or tackles, to advance the ball five yards.
Failure to advance the ball the required distance within those three downs would result in control of the ball being forfeited to the other team.
This change effectively made American football a separate sport from rugby, and the resulting five-yard lines added to the field to measure distances made it resemble a gridiron in appearance.
Other major rule changes included a reduction of the field size to by Despite these new rules, football remained a violent sport.
Dangerous mass-formations, which involved interlocking interference, like the flying wedge resulted in serious injuries and deaths.
The legal forward pass was introduced in , although its impact was initially limited due to the restrictions placed on its use. Other rule changes introduced that year included the reduction of the time of play from 70 to 60 minutes and the increase of the distance required for a first down from 5 to 10 yards 9.
To reduce infighting and dirty play between teams, the neutral zone was created along the width of the football. This is the first recorded instance of a player being paid to participate in a game of American football , although many athletic clubs in the s offered indirect benefits, such as helping players attain employment, giving out trophies or watches that players could pawn for money, or paying double in expense money.
Despite these extra benefits, the game had a strict sense of amateurism at the time, and direct payment to players was frowned upon, if not outright prohibited.
Over time, professional play became increasingly common, and with it came rising salaries and unpredictable player movement, as well as the illegal payment of college players who were still in school.
The National Football League NFL , a group of professional teams that was originally established in as the American Professional Football Association, aimed to solve these problems.
This new league's stated goals included an end to bidding wars over players, prevention of the use of college players, and abolition of the practice of paying players to leave another team.
The dominant form of football at the time was played at the collegiate level , but the upstart NFL received a boost to its legitimacy in when an NFL team, the Pottsville Maroons , defeated a team of Notre Dame all-stars in an exhibition game.
The game, a 23—17 overtime victory by the Colts, was seen by millions of television viewers and had a major impact on the popularity of the sport.
This, along with the innovations introduced by the new American Football League AFL in the early s, helped football to become the most popular sport in the United States by the mids.
The bidding war for players ended in , when NFL owners approached the AFL regarding a merger, and the two leagues agreed on one that would take full effect in This agreement provided for a common draft that would take place each year, and it instituted an annual World Championship game to be played between the champions of each league.
That game began play at the end of the season. Once the merger was completed, it was no longer a championship game between two leagues, and reverted to the NFL championship game, which came to be known as the Super Bowl.
College football maintained a tradition of postseason bowl games. Each bowl game would be associated with a particular conference, and earning a spot in a bowl game was the reward for winning a conference.
This arrangement was profitable, but it tended to prevent the two top-ranked teams from meeting in a true national championship game, as they would normally be committed to the bowl games of their respective conferences.
Several systems have been used since to determine a national champion of college football. The first was the Bowl Coalition , in place from to A football game is played between two teams of 11 players each.
Individual players in a football game must be designated with a uniform number between 1 and NFL teams are required to number their players by a league-approved numbering system, and any exceptions must be approved by the Commissioner.
The role of the offensive unit is to advance the football down the field with the ultimate goal of scoring a touchdown.
The offensive team must line up in a legal formation before they can snap the ball. An offensive formation is considered illegal if there are more than four players in the backfield or fewer than five players numbered 50—79 on the offensive line.
Interior offensive linemen are not allowed to move until the snap of the ball. The quarterback is the leader of the offense. Either the quarterback or a coach calls the plays.
Quarterbacks typically inform the rest of the offense of the play in the huddle before the team lines up. The quarterback lines up behind the center to take the snap and then hands the ball off, throws it or runs with it.
The primary role of the halfback, also known as the running back or tailback, is to carry the ball on running plays. Halfbacks may also serve as receivers.
Fullbacks tend to be larger than halfbacks and function primarily as blockers, but they are sometimes used as runners in short-yardage situations  and are seldom used in passing situations.
The offensive line OL consists of several players whose primary function is to block members of the defensive line from tackling the ball carrier on running plays or sacking the quarterback on passing plays.
The principal receivers are the wide receivers WR and the tight ends TE. The main goal of the wide receiver is to catch passes thrown by the quarterback,  but they may also function as decoys or as blockers during running plays.
Tight ends line up outside the tackles and function both as receivers and as blockers. The role of the defense is to prevent the offense from scoring by tackling the ball carrier or by forcing turnovers interceptions or fumbles.
Defensive ends line up on the ends of the line, while defensive tackles line up inside, between the defensive ends. The primary responsibilities of defensive ends and defensive tackles is to stop running plays on the outside and inside, respectively, to pressure the quarterback on passing plays, and to occupy the line so that the linebackers can break through.
Linebackers line up behind the defensive line but in front of the defensive backfield. They are divided into two types: Linebackers are the defensive leaders and call the defensive plays.
Their diverse roles include defending the run, pressuring the quarterback, and guarding backs, wide receivers and tight ends in the passing game.
The defensive backfield , often called the secondary, consists of cornerbacks CB and safeties S. Safeties are themselves divided into free safeties FS and strong safeties SS.
Safeties are the last line of defense, and are responsible for stopping deep passing plays as well as running plays.
The special teams unit is responsible for all kicking plays. The special teams unit of the team in control of the ball will try and execute field goal FG attempts, punts and kickoffs , while the opposing team's unit will aim to block or return them.
Three positions are specific to the field goal and PAT point-after-touchdown unit: The long snapper's job is to snap the football to the holder, who will catch and position it for the placekicker.
There is not usually a holder on kickoffs, because the ball is kicked off of a tee; however, a holder may be used in certain situations, such as if wind is preventing the ball from remaining upright on the tee.
The player on the receiving team who catches the ball is known as the kickoff returner KR. The positions specific to punt plays are the punter P , long snapper, upback and gunner.
The long snapper snaps the football directly to the punter, who then drops and kicks it before it hits the ground. Gunners line up split outside the line and race down the field, aiming to tackle the punt returner PR — the player that catches the punt.
Upbacks line up a short distance behind the line of scrimmage, providing additional protection to the punter. In American football, the winner is the team that has scored the most points at the end of the game.
There are multiple ways to score in a football game. The touchdown TD , worth six points, is the most valuable scoring play in American football.
A touchdown is scored when a live ball is advanced into, caught in, or recovered in the end zone of the opposing team. A PAT is most commonly attempted from the two- or three-yard line, depending on the level of play.
If scored by a placekick or dropkick through the goal posts, it is worth one point, and is typically called the extra point.
In such a case, a successful attempt is called the two-point conversion  and is worth two points. For the season, the NFL adopted a rules on PATs that stated during an extra point the placekick must be snapped from the yard line and on extra points if the kick is blocked and the opposing team returns it into the end zone or if during a two-point conversion the ball is fumbled or intercepted and returned to the end zone the opposing team will score two points.
No points are awarded on a failed extra point or two-point conversion attempt, although under a rare set of circumstances it is possible to score a safety, worth one point, if the defense takes the ball back into its own end zone and is downed there.
A field goal FG , worth three points, is scored when the ball is placekicked or dropkicked through the uprights and over the crossbars of the defense's goalposts.
A safety is scored when the ball carrier is tackled in their own end zone. Safeties are worth two points, which are awarded to the defense.
Lines marked along the ends and sides of the field are known respectively as the end lines and sidelines , and goal lines are marked 10 yards 9.
Weighted pylons are placed on the inside corner of the intersections of the goal lines and end lines. White markings on the field identify the distance from the end zone.
Inbound lines, or hash marks , are short parallel lines that mark off 1 yard 0. Yard lines , which can run the width of the field, are marked every 5 yards 4.
A one-yard-wide line is placed at each end of the field; this line is marked at the center of the two-yard line in professional play and at the three-yard line in college play.
Numerals that display the distance from the closest goal line in yards are placed on both sides of the field every ten yards.
Goalposts are located at the center of the plane of each of the two end lines. The crossbar of these posts is ten feet 3.
Goal posts are padded at the base, and orange ribbons are normally placed at the tip of each upright. The football itself is an oval ball, similar to the balls used in rugby or Australian rules football.
Football games last for a total of 60 minutes in professional and college play and are divided into two-halves of 30 minutes and four-quarters of 15 minutes.
The visiting team is allowed to call 'heads' or 'tails'; the winner of the toss is allowed to decide between choosing whether to receive or kick off the ball or choosing which goal they want to defend, but they can also defer their choice until the second half.
The losing team, unless the winning team decides to defer, is allowed to choose the option the winning team did not select, and receives the option to receive, kick, or select a goal to defend to begin the second half.
Most teams choose to receive or defer, because choosing to kick the ball to start the game would allow the other team to choose which goal to defend.
Games last longer than their defined length due to play stoppages — the average NFL game lasts slightly over three hours. An operator is responsible for starting, stopping and operating the game clock based on the direction of the appropriate official.
If the play clock expires before the ball has been snapped or free-kicked, a delay of game foul is called on the offense. The play clock is set to 40 seconds in professional and college football and to 25 seconds in high school play or following certain administrative stoppages in the former levels of play.
The GFL 2 , formerly the 2. Bundesliga , which was formed in ,  is divided into a northern and southern division, which eight teams in each division.
For the season, both the northern and the southern champions were promoted, while the runners-up of the two divisions played the last placed team in the GFL division above for another spot in the league in Four teams each are promoted each season from the Regionalliga to the GFL 2.
Promotion to the GFL 2 is achieved through a promotion round at the end of the Regionalliga season which includes the best Regionalliga teams.
For the southern division of the GFL 2 the champions of the southern and central division of the Regionalliga play the runners-up from the other division with the winners of each contest being promoted.
For the northern GFL 2 division the champions of the Regionalliga divisions north, west and east play each other once to determine the two promoted teams.
The league was formed as the 2nd American Football Bundesliga in , consisting of 16 clubs in three regional divisions.
League strength varied from season to season after this, but the three division format was retained until , when a fourth regional group was added.Die Bandits können das über die Relegation auch noch schaffen. Der Sparkassencup Man kann Jaleel eigentlich auf jede Position stellen, er ist ein Zeitweise hatte das auch Erfolg, es gab durchaus ansehnliche Spielzüge, letztendlich scheiterten sie aber an einer Strafe oder die Bandits hatten einfach Pech. So stand es Sekunden vor dem Halbzeitpfiff unentschieden, ehe Mannheim den bis dato längsten Drive mit einem kurzen Touchdown-Lauf plus Extrapunkt zum Mannschaft der Schwäbisch Magic casino heilbronn Unicorns beantwortet. In unserer Datenschutzerklärung beschreiben Beste Spielothek in Topriach finden den Einsatz von Cookies auf unserer Webseite. Die junge Mannschaft der Sacristans ist hungrig und will die Pause nutzen, um sich auf weitere Siege vorzubereiten. Eine klare Angelegenheit würde das sein, dachten die meisten, war …. Trainer Sean Simpson über die Verletzungsmisere Die Sacristans werden unterstützt von: Zuerst empfangen die Junioren im direkten Rückspiel die Cleve Conquerors Der Tabellenzweite bekommt übrigens auch noch die Möglichkeit zum Aufstieg, muss dazu aber in die Relegation gegen den Landesliga-Letzten Offenburg Miners. Klinger 6, Safety 2. Geistesgegenwärtig schnappte sich Jan Klinger das Ei und lief die verbleibenden 10 Yards in die Endzone zum Die junge Mannschaft der Sacristans ist hungrig und will die Pause nutzen, um sich auf weitere Siege vorzubereiten. Das bedeutet, dass die Bandits mit mindestens 28 Punkten Unterschied gewinnen müssen, um noch Meister zu werden. Diese konnte im zweiten Jahr ihres Bestehens den ersten und mehr als verdienten Sieg feiern. Beim Stande von Dezember und am Am Ende … Pflichtspielauftakt Die Herren errangen mit SV Waldhof vor Relegation gegen Uerdingen